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The Writings of M. Nanjundaswami IPS
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Palasi  Temple Complex of Wild Boar - anthropomorphic god Varaha Avatara

The neolithic men who used the wild boar- teeth as a plow revered the wild boar. They used the teeth to devise their various agricultural implements. That led to the wide spread respect and honor for the wild boar. That made the zoomorphic wild boar to ascend to become an avatara of God Vishnu. The Pulisas of Asokan Edicts have founded the village Palasika. Today it is called Halasi. It is a small town in the Khanapura Taluk of Belgaum district in Karnataka. The Palasi Kadambas reined the area for some time. They inherited the power from the Pulisas; the Nagas of the devagiri copper plates of Krishna Varma-III.  The Holeyas of Karnataka, devotees of Malai Madeshwara have respect for the wild boar and they do not eat pork and wild boar. They say it is against their god to eat pork. The several authorities place the present Holeyas as the modern representatives of Pulisas. Gustav Oppert and Rev. F. Kittel are authors of this philosophy apart from many others. The Mamallapuram - the modern Mahabalipuram too houses a temple dedicated to Varaha. It is called Adi Varaha temple. The Pallavas built the temple and they too were the descendants of Pulisas. Such temples are found at many places in the Indian sub-continent. Eran in Madhya Pradesh houses the zoomorphic statue of the god.




































































































































The Collection of Research Materials and Preparations for the Academic Researches
By
M. Nanjundaswami IPS


“A research that doesn’t shock doesn’t qualify to be a research.”

          Today research in any field is the need of the hour. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Some activities command more interest, devotion and enthusiasm from man than others. And men make passionate commitments to them. Is there any significant work, ever done without great personal involvement? Research is a significant activity, and it is any investigation, survey or study tending to correct, verify or add to the knowledge in general or in specific field. The research is classified into, fundamental or pure research, applied research, descriptive research, evaluative research based on intent. Based on the methods, a research can be classified as, experimental research, analytical research, historical research and survey research. Depending on the environment, research can be stemmed into field research and laboratory research. Whatever the type of research may be the research assignment is essentially the detailed presentation of an idea, using external sources to explain or substantiate one’s own idea or ideas. It is not simply a rehash of those resources. The research assignment may be term paper, thesis, or dissertation; it is more ambitious than the essay or the small-scale science report.  To begin a research, one useful way of arriving at new insights into a topic is to bombard it with questions. At this point, Kipling’s verse remains a valuable standby:
I keep six honest serving men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
_ “The Elephant’s Child”

                    
          The components of the research paper or thesis are straightforward enough: a title capturing succinctly the problem or field researched; an introduction; several sections or chapters of research findings and analysis; conclusion; bibliography or list of sources consulted. Other common features are the preface (including acknowledgements) and a review of existing studies (or the current state of research) on the same topic.
         
RESEARCH MATERIAL COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

If you steal from one author, its plagiarism; if you steal from many, it’s research. – Mitterand President Francois 1916 - 1996
Basic Sources of Materials
Point – 1. The best material is in your brain:Research begins with your own knowledge and ideas – write down in point form every relevant fact or thought you may have on the subject.
Point – 2. Converse with your friends and mentors: Next, if appropriate, discussion with others, or interviews. Confer with relatives or fellow-students, not just for their ideas, but as a stimulus for further ideas of your own. A blind can’t lead another blind. So, make friends who know the subject and take mentors who encourage you to conduct research into your subject or topic of choice.
Point – 3. The old text books and notes: Your own books and notes – primary texts if possible, such as the play or novel you intend writing about; then secondary sources, such as your lecture notes or a text book. The temptation, if you are pressed for time or lacking in confidence, is to ignore your own ideas and simply adopt or adapt of the ‘experts’.
Point – 4. Read the original texts and writings: The students conducting research into the Vedic culture must read the Vedas themselves – reading only commentators on them instead. Don’t chance it. You will never learn to think independently and judge a topic critically if you always rely solely on other people’s opinions.
Point – 5. External Library: Begin with your reading list, you have a number of choices.
a)     You could ask the library assistant to ‘recall’ the books, or to order extra copies (perhaps on inter-library loan), or to give you the name and address of the current borrower: you could then ask him to share the books with you, or to pass them on to you one by one as he finishes with them.
b)    You could buy the most important of the titles. If you buy them second-hand, and sell them again once you have finished with them, it should not be too expensive an exercise, though it might prove unacceptably time-consuming.

c)     You could try another library nearby. Even libraries outside the public library system, such as university libraries, are often amenable to a personal approach: you may secure a day pass to the reading room, for instance, where you can consult the relevant books or articles.

Point – 6. Personal Physical Library: Collect all the books you have in your house/room at a place. Scan all of them for their utility for the subject you are handling for the research. Arrange all of them subject-wise and keep them safe and easily available, in the book racks, for your reference.
          The collection of books and articles, before you conclude your research, have to form the best library for the subject you have conducted the research.
There have to be at least six racks of books in your personal library by the time your research is concluded.
 Rack I - Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
Rack II – The original books of your subject bought by you
Rack III – The secondary books that have opinions of other scholars
Rack IV – The books downloaded from the internet and spiral bound
Rack V – The articles, notes and tit-bit information alphabetically arranged
Rack VI – Your manuscripts and scribbling
Point – 7. Personal Digital Library: Today digital library is as much important as the physical library.
Your digital library could include:
I-                  The laptops, desktops, kindle readers and notepads
II-               The micro chips, pen-drives, compact disks, and hard disks of high capacity
III-            The blue tooth, wi-fi, internet and printers
IV-            The facilities to read and type comfortably
Point – 8. Personal libraries of the scholars: The scholars who have worked on the subjects keep their own personal libraries, if you contact them they would be of great help. They would guide you to search the materials for your research and they would be able to gift or donate their books and articles from their library for your service.

The sourcing of materials

The networked materials: The sourcing of the materials begins with what you know. Read any book or article related to the subject or topic of your research and look for the references quoted or sighted in them. Start searching for those materials in your personal library or in any external library.
Once you have tracked down a suitable book or article, you may well find that it refers you in turn to other relevant items. It is often heartening to discover how easily you can keep up the momentum of your research, as one reference leads on to another.-RD, How to write and speak better.

Look and pick: Concentrate on those chapters or sections that bear most closely on the specific topic you are researching. And shift that material very finely in turn when taking notes on its contents.

File, don’t pile:    To avoid the unnecessary delays, and to avoid the misplacing of required materials, keep all the books, articles, notes, and tit-bit information in an organized manner. Keep a proper file, regarding all the materials you have and avoid the negligent attitude found commonly among the research scholars who pile up the materials collected, casually in a corner of their rooms. The file would help you in tracing the material as and when required and as often as required. It would promptly assist you in compiling the bibliography.

Book shop: The easier and sure way to source the popular books is a book shop in your city. The shop keeper may assist you in sourcing those books which are normally not placed on shelves of the shop by ordering for the books directly from the publishers.

Publishers: The publishers would send the books to you directly to your address. You can select many modes of payment for paying for the books. A good research scholar would know well the publishers who publish books of his choice.

The internet shops:The net-shops like the flipkart, amazon, and many other shops on the net are selling books, compact-disks, videos and many more materials that are relevant for the academic researches. They can be purchased online.

Free-sites: There are a plenty of web-sites with digital on-line libraries that allow the net-users to browse and down load books and articles freely. You can use them extensively for sourcing of the materials required for your research.
 To name a few sites:


And many blogs and web-sites  of various universities, museums, institutions, and colleges would help you.

Tour: The touring is another good source for collecting the materials for the research. As much as possible go on tour to collect books, specimens, and to visit the fields and the people.

Journals and Magazines:

The Journals and Magazines that enthralled the scholars for many decades would be of great help to you even now.      
The various sources could be:
Indian Antiquary
Journal of Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society
Journal of Bengal Branch of Royal Asiatic Society
Madras Museum Journals
Gazetteers
Manuals
Travelogues
Reports
Check lists before you say you have done your research report ready for print:
1.     Is the subject or purpose of the paper clearly defined for the reader?
2.     Does the paper really engage that subject or purpose? – and in a way that reflects my own views rather than just summarizing or quoting the views of others?
3.     Have I backed up my views adequately with well-reasoned arguments, and have I substantiated my general statements with specific evidence and examples?
4.     What about the structure? – is the information well organized and proportioned? Have I written a clear, and brief, introduction and conclusion? In the body of the paper, does the argument jump about too much? Does it leave any loose ends or raise any unanswered questions? Are the links between arguments properly forged, and the transitions from paragraph properly signposted?
5.     Are all the contents relevant? Perhaps some paragraphs are just digressions, and interrupt rather than aid the flow of argument?
6.     Is the wording tight and economical? – not a surplus of examples, no over-subtle distinctions, no waffles or redundancy?
7.     Is the language appropriate? No overlong sentences? Not too slangy or too highfalutin?
8.     Is everything accurate and consistent? – the quotations, and the footnotes and bibliography references? the spelling and grammar? The spacing and style of the subheadings?
9.     Is the presentation right? Neatly written or typed? Have I remembered to write my name on the paper and to number the pages?
If you can answer all these questions to your satisfaction, the composition is ready to submit. If not, revise as best you can in the time available.
          Research is not a steep and thorny way of getting knowledge. Doing research is just feeding our talent in a subject chosen by conducting a systematic investigation. Research is not a daunting process. Research should not become the mere interest for getting some degrees.


_



.







Palasi  Temple Complex of Wild Boar - anthropomorphic god Varaha Avatara

The neolithic men who used the wild boar- teeth as a plow revered the wild boar. They used the teeth to devise their various agricultural implements. That led to the wide spread respect and honor for the wild boar. That made the zoomorphic wild boar to ascend to become an avatara of God Vishnu. The Pulisas of Asokan Edicts have founded the village Palasika. Today it is called Halasi. It is a small town in the Khanapura Taluk of Belgaum district in Karnataka. The Palasi Kadambas reined the area for some time. They inherited the power from the Pulisas; the Nagas of the devagiri copper plates of Krishna Varma-III.  The Holeyas of Karnataka, devotees of Malai Madeshwara have respect for the wild boar and they do not eat pork and wild boar. They say it is against their god to eat pork. The several authorities place the present Holeyas as the modern representatives of Pulisas. Gustav Oppert and Rev. F. Kittel are authors of this philosophy apart from many others. The Mamallapuram - the modern Mahabalipuram too houses a temple dedicated to Varaha. It is called Adi Varaha temple. The Pallavas built the temple and they too were the descendants of Pulisas. Such temples are found at many places in the Indian sub-continent. Eran in Madhya Pradesh houses the zoomorphic statue of the god.




































































































































The Collection of Research Materials and Preparations for the Academic Researches
By
M. Nanjundaswami IPS


“A research that doesn’t shock doesn’t qualify to be a research.”

          Today research in any field is the need of the hour. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Some activities command more interest, devotion and enthusiasm from man than others. And men make passionate commitments to them. Is there any significant work, ever done without great personal involvement? Research is a significant activity, and it is any investigation, survey or study tending to correct, verify or add to the knowledge in general or in specific field. The research is classified into, fundamental or pure research, applied research, descriptive research, evaluative research based on intent. Based on the methods, a research can be classified as, experimental research, analytical research, historical research and survey research. Depending on the environment, research can be stemmed into field research and laboratory research. Whatever the type of research may be the research assignment is essentially the detailed presentation of an idea, using external sources to explain or substantiate one’s own idea or ideas. It is not simply a rehash of those resources. The research assignment may be term paper, thesis, or dissertation; it is more ambitious than the essay or the small-scale science report.  To begin a research, one useful way of arriving at new insights into a topic is to bombard it with questions. At this point, Kipling’s verse remains a valuable standby:
I keep six honest serving men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
_ “The Elephant’s Child”

                    
          The components of the research paper or thesis are straightforward enough: a title capturing succinctly the problem or field researched; an introduction; several sections or chapters of research findings and analysis; conclusion; bibliography or list of sources consulted. Other common features are the preface (including acknowledgements) and a review of existing studies (or the current state of research) on the same topic.
         
RESEARCH MATERIAL COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

If you steal from one author, its plagiarism; if you steal from many, it’s research. – Mitterand President Francois 1916 - 1996
Basic Sources of Materials
Point – 1. The best material is in your brain:Research begins with your own knowledge and ideas – write down in point form every relevant fact or thought you may have on the subject.
Point – 2. Converse with your friends and mentors: Next, if appropriate, discussion with others, or interviews. Confer with relatives or fellow-students, not just for their ideas, but as a stimulus for further ideas of your own. A blind can’t lead another blind. So, make friends who know the subject and take mentors who encourage you to conduct research into your subject or topic of choice.
Point – 3. The old text books and notes: Your own books and notes – primary texts if possible, such as the play or novel you intend writing about; then secondary sources, such as your lecture notes or a text book. The temptation, if you are pressed for time or lacking in confidence, is to ignore your own ideas and simply adopt or adapt of the ‘experts’.
Point – 4. Read the original texts and writings: The students conducting research into the Vedic culture must read the Vedas themselves – reading only commentators on them instead. Don’t chance it. You will never learn to think independently and judge a topic critically if you always rely solely on other people’s opinions.
Point – 5. External Library: Begin with your reading list, you have a number of choices.
a)     You could ask the library assistant to ‘recall’ the books, or to order extra copies (perhaps on inter-library loan), or to give you the name and address of the current borrower: you could then ask him to share the books with you, or to pass them on to you one by one as he finishes with them.
b)    You could buy the most important of the titles. If you buy them second-hand, and sell them again once you have finished with them, it should not be too expensive an exercise, though it might prove unacceptably time-consuming.

c)     You could try another library nearby. Even libraries outside the public library system, such as university libraries, are often amenable to a personal approach: you may secure a day pass to the reading room, for instance, where you can consult the relevant books or articles.

Point – 6. Personal Physical Library: Collect all the books you have in your house/room at a place. Scan all of them for their utility for the subject you are handling for the research. Arrange all of them subject-wise and keep them safe and easily available, in the book racks, for your reference.
          The collection of books and articles, before you conclude your research, have to form the best library for the subject you have conducted the research.
There have to be at least six racks of books in your personal library by the time your research is concluded.
 Rack I - Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
Rack II – The original books of your subject bought by you
Rack III – The secondary books that have opinions of other scholars
Rack IV – The books downloaded from the internet and spiral bound
Rack V – The articles, notes and tit-bit information alphabetically arranged
Rack VI – Your manuscripts and scribbling
Point – 7. Personal Digital Library: Today digital library is as much important as the physical library.
Your digital library could include:
I-                  The laptops, desktops, kindle readers and notepads
II-               The micro chips, pen-drives, compact disks, and hard disks of high capacity
III-            The blue tooth, wi-fi, internet and printers
IV-            The facilities to read and type comfortably
Point – 8. Personal libraries of the scholars: The scholars who have worked on the subjects keep their own personal libraries, if you contact them they would be of great help. They would guide you to search the materials for your research and they would be able to gift or donate their books and articles from their library for your service.

The sourcing of materials

The networked materials: The sourcing of the materials begins with what you know. Read any book or article related to the subject or topic of your research and look for the references quoted or sighted in them. Start searching for those materials in your personal library or in any external library.
Once you have tracked down a suitable book or article, you may well find that it refers you in turn to other relevant items. It is often heartening to discover how easily you can keep up the momentum of your research, as one reference leads on to another.-RD, How to write and speak better.

Look and pick: Concentrate on those chapters or sections that bear most closely on the specific topic you are researching. And shift that material very finely in turn when taking notes on its contents.

File, don’t pile:    To avoid the unnecessary delays, and to avoid the misplacing of required materials, keep all the books, articles, notes, and tit-bit information in an organized manner. Keep a proper file, regarding all the materials you have and avoid the negligent attitude found commonly among the research scholars who pile up the materials collected, casually in a corner of their rooms. The file would help you in tracing the material as and when required and as often as required. It would promptly assist you in compiling the bibliography.

Book shop: The easier and sure way to source the popular books is a book shop in your city. The shop keeper may assist you in sourcing those books which are normally not placed on shelves of the shop by ordering for the books directly from the publishers.

Publishers: The publishers would send the books to you directly to your address. You can select many modes of payment for paying for the books. A good research scholar would know well the publishers who publish books of his choice.

The internet shops:The net-shops like the flipkart, amazon, and many other shops on the net are selling books, compact-disks, videos and many more materials that are relevant for the academic researches. They can be purchased online.

Free-sites: There are a plenty of web-sites with digital on-line libraries that allow the net-users to browse and down load books and articles freely. You can use them extensively for sourcing of the materials required for your research.
 To name a few sites:


And many blogs and web-sites  of various universities, museums, institutions, and colleges would help you.

Tour: The touring is another good source for collecting the materials for the research. As much as possible go on tour to collect books, specimens, and to visit the fields and the people.

Journals and Magazines:

The Journals and Magazines that enthralled the scholars for many decades would be of great help to you even now.      
The various sources could be:
Indian Antiquary
Journal of Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society
Journal of Bengal Branch of Royal Asiatic Society
Madras Museum Journals
Gazetteers
Manuals
Travelogues
Reports
Check lists before you say you have done your research report ready for print:
1.     Is the subject or purpose of the paper clearly defined for the reader?
2.     Does the paper really engage that subject or purpose? – and in a way that reflects my own views rather than just summarizing or quoting the views of others?
3.     Have I backed up my views adequately with well-reasoned arguments, and have I substantiated my general statements with specific evidence and examples?
4.     What about the structure? – is the information well organized and proportioned? Have I written a clear, and brief, introduction and conclusion? In the body of the paper, does the argument jump about too much? Does it leave any loose ends or raise any unanswered questions? Are the links between arguments properly forged, and the transitions from paragraph properly signposted?
5.     Are all the contents relevant? Perhaps some paragraphs are just digressions, and interrupt rather than aid the flow of argument?
6.     Is the wording tight and economical? – not a surplus of examples, no over-subtle distinctions, no waffles or redundancy?
7.     Is the language appropriate? No overlong sentences? Not too slangy or too highfalutin?
8.     Is everything accurate and consistent? – the quotations, and the footnotes and bibliography references? the spelling and grammar? The spacing and style of the subheadings?
9.     Is the presentation right? Neatly written or typed? Have I remembered to write my name on the paper and to number the pages?
If you can answer all these questions to your satisfaction, the composition is ready to submit. If not, revise as best you can in the time available.
          Research is not a steep and thorny way of getting knowledge. Doing research is just feeding our talent in a subject chosen by conducting a systematic investigation. Research is not a daunting process. Research should not become the mere interest for getting some degrees.


_


 
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