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The Fresenius 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine series were designed for flexibility. They all Equipped with advanced therapy options; ultrafiltration, fixed proportioning, heat disinfecting, variable dialysate flow, and including automatic blood pressure monitoring as well as computer documentation capabilities.

The Fresenius 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine, Easy to operate touch membrane control panel with improved visual displays and advance therapy options in the E model is retrofittable to the C and the D machines and the panel of the H system is retrofittable to the C, D, and the E model machines.

InThe Fresenius 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine, All of the models can be upgraded using modules for on-line monitoring and control systems.

The Fresenius 2008 series machines are unique "closed loop" volumetric dialysate control systems. ultrafiltration is measured on-line and patients can be dialyzed with coefficient dialyzers without fear of excess fluid removal.


Monitoring is retrofittable to the D machines and allows for flexibility among the 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine series of machines.

Available features in the 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine include: Volumetric Ultrafiltration Fixed Proportioning, Heat Disinfection and Variable Dialysate Flow.

Advanced options in the 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine include: BPS08 Automatic Blood Pressure Monitoring System and the FDS08 Computer Documentation System.

This machine continues the tradition of durability and reliability that has made Fresenius a recognized leader world-wide.

.



The Prismaflex (TM) Machine is the newest generation of technology for CRRT (Kidney Dialysis) offered by Gambro.

With the Prismaflex (TM) System, Gambro enhance prescription flexibility by offering a platform with increased therapy options and features.

This is the information about the main differences between the current technology and the Prismaflex (TM) :

The Prismaflex (TM) has the combination of vivid colors and clear graphics on a large 12 inch touch screen.

The safety system of Prismaflex (TM) is proactive, offering many helpful features, such as automatic bar code identification of the set and customized default safe values.


The Prismaflex(TM) Kidney Dialysis Machine has Five pumps offer multiple therapeutic combinations that allows the delivery of fluid into the blood pre filter. This circuit is called the Pre Blood Pump (PBP). Fluid delivered into this circuit will be accounted for in the calculation of net fluid balance. And a pre-blood pump allows infusion of a supplemental solution for hemodilution or anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit.

The Prismaflex(TM) tubing is larger. This will lowers the resistance to flow and can reduce the amount of pull required to remove blood from the patient.

The Prismaflex(TM) has much higher maximum flow rate capabilities for blood flows, dialysate and replacement rates. The Prisma(TM) can only achieve blood flow rates of 150-180 ml/min (depending upon model).

An air elimination port similar to those found on intermittent hemodialysis circuits is incorporated into the Prismaflex(TM) circuit.

Scales are still used to measure weight changes, however, the new Prismaflex (TM) is less susceptible to nuisance alarms. Scales are now located at waist level, with an improved ergonomic design for bag changes.

Prismaflex(TM) is a much more flexible system that allows any therapy change. Prisma(TM) is initially set-up in CVVHDF mode. This provides the flexibility of being able to change the therapy to CVVH or SCUF, without changing the filter. Higher hemofiltration rates can be run if the circuit is set-up initially as CVVH, however, dialysate cannot be added without starting a new filter.

The same Prismaflex(TM) filter can be run as predilution, postdilution, or a combination of both, when hemofiltration therapy is used. Currently, Prisma(TM) can only be run as predilution OR postdilution, depending upon the type of filter being selected. Currently, we only stock predilution sets for the Prisma(TM).We will continue using the predilution filters at this time.

The Prismaflex(TM) Kidney Dialysis Machine has Technical differences exist among the filters used, methods for priming, heater and heater tubing and method for bag changes.


The Prismaflex(TM) Kidney Dialysis Machine has also Data storage capabilities.


The Gambro Artis dialysis system is making life in the clinic easier for everyone.

The ArtisTM dialysis system makes advanced therapies more accessible and easier to implement in your daily clinic routine.

Designing Artis dialysis system, Gambro also ascribed to human factor engineering, ergonomics and usability as top priorities in innovation.

Gambro is confident the rewards in staff satisfaction with Artis dialysis system will be significant.Helping dialysis providers elevate operational efficiency is equally important.

To sustain quality of care while reducing workloads we have also integrated more intelligent systems that automate processes while minimizing administrative efforts and the potential for error.

Experience the benefits of Advanced simplicity with Artis.The new system includes a completely updated user interface which fosters flexible and consistent treatment for kidney dialysis that is completed both simply and easily.


The ease of learning and usability are further enhanced by a touch-screen interface, placing the user in control and facilitating the decision-making process. A unique and innovative blood circuit has been designed in this dialysis machine for the extracorporeal blood circulation, significantly reducing the number of user actions and risks of misuse.

All of these innovations contribute to a better user experience. The location and the design of each component have been carefully studied, ensuring intuitive and efficient handling. The Artis TM Sistem Kidney dialysis machine monitor will also improve the daily working environment with a human touch design.

The Artis TM Kidney dialysis machine system has been well received by the clinicians who have already had an opportunity to use the system. ”My overall impression is very positive. The design is clean and the large screen allows me to monitor the treatment even when I am not close to the machine.

It was very easy to learn how to use The Artis TM Sistem Kidney dialysis machine the system and the installation procedure of the new blood module will significantly reduce the time to prepare the machine for treatment.” said one renal nurse after first sessions performed with the.

The Artis TM Sistem Kidney dialysis machine system can be adapted to any treatment strategy and prescription, from conventional, high flux to advanced online hemodialysis therapies.

The ArtisTM Kidney dialysis machine system includes an intelligent regulation system allowing for continuous therapy adjustments to the status of the patient for better comfort and more consistent delivery of the prescription.


A new build renal unit was established at the Countess of Chester Hospital in early 2006, and it is equipped with the highest specification Gambro Kidney Dialysis Machine (In-center Care ) AK 200 S and Ultra S machines.

The AK 200 ULTRATM S machine is the easiest and most versatile machine available. These enable a whole range of therapies to be applied to patients, including higher convection HD, HF and HDF.

The AK 200 ULTRATM S kidney dialysis machine is Specifically designed for on-line HDF/HF treatments, with it is easy to select the method or treatment that suits the patient best.


With ULTRACONTROL, The AK 200 ULTRATM S provides unique high convective volume in a smooth way, and become a simpler, safer tool to use, with easy treatment set up. There is a reduced risk of excessive haemoconcentration and the exchange volumes are greater, therefore this may improve treatment out come when using this preferred therapy option, on-line HDF.


This is true even in the most challenging setup: HDF post-dilution with high hematocrit level patients.

Best convective volumes are achieved in a smooth and consistent way in on-line HDF/HF treatments resulting in:
  • Less micro inflammation episodes, i.e. ensuring a better response to EPO dose
  • Improved cardiovascular stability
  • Increased patient satisfaction
Thanks to the three-barrier filtration concept, the AK 200 ULTRA S ensures optimal fluid quality throughout any treatment.

AK 200 ULTRA S is not cleared for sales in the US.


The new standard in kidney dialysis patient safety and operational efficiencies has been sated in The innovative Phoenix® dialysis system.

The low-volume design of the Gambro Cartridge™ Blood Set also offers optimal biocompatibility, while the combined use of BiCart® Cartridge and Diaclear® Ultrafilter reduces bacteria and endotoxins, resulting in fewer dialysis related problems for your patients.

Phoenix system Designed also with a unique protective blood module, Phoenix system eliminates the risk of cross-contamination between patients caused by transducer protector contamination.

Phoenix kidney dialysis machine system is streamlined therapy delivery for you and your patients. Phoenix system also features operational efficiencies that optimize the workflow of your dialysis unit.


There are Other features of Phoenix system kidney dialysis machine:
  • Diascan Monitoring System offers real-time evaluation of dialysis efficiency.
  • System automations in the Preparation of kidney dialysis treatment– including auto-prime, programmable recirculation, auto-disinfection and rinse, automatic wake-up and auto-off functions – streamline workflow for optimal efficiency.
  • Preparation of kidney dialysis treatment ; Intelligent design set-up eliminates the need for dialyzer rotation and the need for a waste-priming bucket.
  • Reduced downtimes minimize time to dialysis treatment and time between two dialysis treatments to less than 10 minutes, and 32 minutes for full chemical disinfection.


Gambro Launches the kidney dialysis , AK 96TM ;which designed to provide benefits secondary to a less expensive and a smaller, modular system. The product launch was detailed with a press release from Gambro, posted on the company website.

AK 96TM A New Dialysis Machine To Deliver kidney dialysis Treatment With The Highest Level Of Quality And Safety.

The AK 96TM kidney dialysis machine will replace an earlier model the AK 95 S, from the company.

It secures and eases high-quality user interactions with dialysis systems, leads to effective medical treatment as well as improves the user experience for renal care providers.

The new system includes a completely updated user interface which fosters flexible and consistent treatment for kidney dialysis that is completed both simply and easily.


9 January 2009 ; Thelaunch of New AK 96® monitor.


Gambro is proud to announce the UK launch of our new AK
96TM Dialysis machine monitor, which was previewed at the ART conference in October.

For all treatments and all patients, This new single pump platform features heavily on operational efficiency and reliability. New features integrated with the
96TM kidney dialysis machine include the Diascan system. The monitor is already living up to its promise to offer more in a simple way with successful launches throughout the APAC With Gambro Diascan™ quality control feature.

Another major benefit is the improved access for renal technicians to work on the dialysis machine monitor.

the AK
96TM Kidney Dialysis machine has a very intuitive user interface, meaning less time is required for training and ongoing use is easier, that can be verified by
Extensive trials were carried out during 2008 in the UK, Hong Kong, Malaysia, India, Saudi Arabia and Canada.

24 October 2008 ; New monitor of AK 96 proves itself in trials.

It won't be long before hospitals are able to benefit from what Gambro new AK
96TM kidney dialysis machine monitor has to offer. In vivo Alpha and Beta UK field trials at the Churchill Hospital have produced positive results, with its ease-of-use proving especially encouraging.

"I am excited about this product as it is a compact system which still integrates with Gambro's portable water treatment systems to ensure the continuity of the hygienic chain," says Gareth Jones, Country Manager, UK & Ireland. "Safety has been uppermost in our minds when developing the monitor and it follows a comprehensive safety philosophy comprising conductivity measurement, UF cells, complete function checks, and an intuitive user interface and processes.

"It also delivers additional treatment features such as Diascan© which provides a quality assurance tool giving on-line clearance measurement and Kt/V surveillance for all patients, at every session of kidney dialysis.

"We had great faith that the AK 96 kidney dialysis machine monitor would deliver solid standard dialysis treatment and a high degree of reliability, as well as being easy to operate for both in-centre and home patient use. This faith has been put to the test through the trials."

Commenting upon the trials, Churchill's Chief Technician Andy Mosson said: "I was impressed with the clean lines of the AK 96 Kidney dialysis machine and our nursing team were able to adapt to its use reasonably easily. The technical team liked the improved access and layout and in terms of technical performance the AK 96 machine performed well."

Gambro leveraged features from the older model, while adding on others to make the product in the top tier of dialysis machines. Features added to the newest iteration foster flexibility in system use.

Incorporated is a standby mode which allows flexibility in the preparation of fluids, which saves both concentrate and water. A variety of configuration choices are included with the AK 96 kidney dialysis machine to support each provider’s approach. Further, the options ensure quality delivery of treatment while achieving significant efficiencies.

Gambro goal in developing the product was to create a dialysis delivery system that is safe and effective, as well as simple. Gambro develops a line of products for kidney dialysis care, both at treatment facilities and by patients themselves.

Michael Lewis, The President EMEA also says "It is our ambition to always act with renal or kidney patients and our customers at the top of our minds. Dialysis should be simple, safe and effective and therefore I feel extremely happy to present AK 96 kidney dialysis machine, which has been developed with these requirements in mind,"

The AK 96 kidney dialysis machine is currently not for sale in the USA. The AK 96 will be available from February 2008 in the following markets: UK, Ireland, Middle East, Africa, Canada, India, Vietnam, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand. Subsequent markets will be added throughout 2008 and 2009.

For more information about AK 96 Kidney Dialysis Machine and other Gambro solutions for delivering in-center hemodialysis / kidney dialysis please contact your local Gambro office. Contact details can be found at the Gambro web site: http://www.gambro.com.


Gambro is a company that specialising in dialysis machines and renal medicine products.

Gambro is a global medical technology company and a leader in developing, manufacturing and supplying products, therapies and services for In-center Care and Self Care Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, Renal Intensive Care, dialysis machines equipment and Hepatic Care.

when the industrialist Holger Crafoord met Professor Nils Alwall, Gambro as a Swedish company was founded in Lund in 1964 , Professor Nils Alwall, who had invented an artificial kidney,in 1961 at a social event and listened to his story. It was so impressive, he felt compelled to develop and market this life-saving innovation (dialysis).

For decades, Gambro has led the market in kidney care development and has been first to market with many groundbreaking innovations. The company started mass production of
dialysis machines and artificial kidneys in 1967 and in 1973 they opened a new plant in Germany.

Gambro was founded in 1964 and has production facilities dialysis centers in 11 countries, more than 8 000 dialysis machines employees, sales who nows about dialysis and dialysis machines in more than 100, sales subsidiaries in more than 40 countries.

Gambro is the only clinic-independent company and by designing and delivering complete solutions to dialysis clinics and intensive care units, Gambro offers not just improved dialysis treatment quality, but also improved efficiency of dialysis equipments.

Gambro is a worldwide business staffed by dialysis People work in different environments but have a common human focus and commitment to saving lives by dialysis from more than 40 countries. There’s something special about working for Gambro.

GAMBRO PURPOSE

By focusing on innovation and building true partnerships with customers we save lives and improve kidney care.that is gambro purpose, to be the leading innovator and the preferred partner for dialysis providers worldwide.

Gambro business objectives are to be the leader in growth, customer satisfaction and value creation.

GAMBRO VALUES AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES:

  • Customer focus: Gambro always strive to exceed customer expectations and keep dialysis patient safety and quality as a key priority.
  • Accountability- is not just a word. As a company, and as individuals, Gambro hold hemselves accountable to his customers, team members and partners by delivering on our commitments.
  • Team work- people are the biggest asset of the company and teamwork is key to Gambro success.
  • Integrity- conduct business in an ethical manner with courage to do the right thing.
  • Results- are what count and Gambro continuously seeking ways to improve his business.

QUALITY AND SAFETY OF GAMBRO

The quality and safety processes of Gambro are constantly reviewed and improved in order to exceed meet or the highest standards in gambro industry.

The fully committment of Gambro team to designing, manufacturing and supplying safe and high quality products and services that meet or exceed our customer’s expectations.

Gambro consistently focus on customer needs, learning and growth within the organization and the company’s internal processes In order to fulfill international and national requirements, guidelines and policies. This helps ensure that all Gambro activities, both internally and externally, advance the best long-term interest for customers as well as patients.


THE MARKET OF GAMBRO

The global industry providing dialysis is becoming more consolidated and Innovation in the field of dialysis is essential becouse of the lives of a growing number of patients every year saved by Dialysis.

therapy treating organ failure outside the body, or Kidney (renal) dialysis was the world’s first extracorporeal therapy. Kidney dialysis the only alternative today. Renal dialysis remains vital to a growing number of patients around the world. kidney transplantation, is precluded for most patients due to a shortage of donor organs.

For new applications,to remove other fluids and toxins from chronically and acutely ill patients, Dialysis technology is also being developed such as liver dialysis and the emerging field of extracorporeal therapies being developed.

In markets Dialysis patient growth is increasing by 8-10 percent a year In countries with larger populations and fast-developing economies like China and India.In U.S., Europe and Japan, with larger elderly populations and rising rates of wealth, and with that increased incidence of lifestyle-related conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, The number of kidney dialysis patients is growing steadily. the number of patients is increasing by 3-4 percent a year.


THE GAMBRO STORY

It all started with the industrialist Holger Crafoord met the inventor at a social event and listened to his story .

The first artificial kidney invented by Professor Nils Alwall. Just three years later, in 1964. It was so impressive, he felt compelled to develop and market this life-saving innovation.

Development work began in Lund, Sweden. The company adopted the name Gambro, which comes from the Swedish abbreviation for “Gamla Brogatans Sjukvårdsaffär Aktiebolag". Roughly translated, that means “Old Bridge Street Medical Supplies Company". Mass-production of single-use artificial kidneys and dialysis machines began in 1967. The company’s first plant outside Sweden was built in Hechingen, Germany in the 1970s.

During the last three decades, Hospal, COBE, REN and Vivra have all been added to the Gambro Group. REN and Vivra are now divested as Gambro has sold all US clinics to US dialysis company DaVita.that is mean the acquisitions have helped broaden Gambro’s range of products and services.

Indap AB, indirectly jointly-owned by EQT and Investor AB announced on April 3, 2006 a public cash offer to the shareholders of Gambro to acquire all outstanding shares in Gambro. The new ownership structure of Gambro became effective in June 2006.

Milestones in the Gambro Story:


  • 1964 Gambro was founded in Lund by Holger Crafoord, an industrialist who decided to develop and market the artificial kidney.
  • 1967 The dialyzer “Ad-modum-Alwall” is launched.
  • 1973 The first plant outside Sweden is opened in Hechingen, Germany.
  • 1977 The AK-10, the first computerized dialysis machine, is introduced at a renal care congress in Helsinki Finland.
  • 1983 Gambro shares are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange.
  • 1987 Hospal (a European company founded in 1977 by the merger of Sandoz and Rhône-Poulenc) is acquired and the BiCart-cartridge is launched.
  • 1988 Launch of COBE Spectra Apheresis System.
  • 1990 COBE (American company founded in 1964 – active in renal care, blood component technology and cardiovascular surgery) is acquired.
  • 1991 First Gambro dialysis clinic is opened in Lund, Sweden.
  • 1996 Gambro becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of Incentive, an international technology based industrial group.
  • 1997 Launch of Trima Automated Blood Collection System.
  • 1998 Incentive changes its name to Gambro, heralding the start of a new era.
  • 2000 COBE BCT changes its name to Gambro BCT.
  • 2001 The new state-of-the-art plant for production of dialyzers opened in Germany.
  • 2003 Gambro BCT reached USD 200 million in sales.
  • 2004 Gambro celebrates its 40th anniversary.
  • Gambro sells US clinics and establishes strategic alliance with DaVita and Baxter.
  • In December 2005, Gambro BCT reached its sales target of USD 300 million.
  • 2006 Indap AB, new owners of Gambro
  • 2007 With the divesture of Gambro Health Care, Gambro became the only global clinic-independent company with a full range of products, covering all renal therapies within Peritoneal Dialysis, Self Care hemodialysis, In-Center hemodialysis, Renal Intensive Care and Hepatic Care
http://www.gambro.com


NxStage Medical, Inc. is one of medical supplier company which leading manufacturer of innovative dialysis products. On the 2005, they are released a Hemodialysis Machine "NxStage System One", a portable unit that allows patients to conduct their own dialysis at home or on the road.

The NxStage System One is a portable kidney dialysis machine that became the first truly portable home hemodialysis machine. NxStage using FDA clearance's system to deliver multiple therapy options, and delivers these therapies in short intermittent schedules, long continuous schedules, or anything in between patient condition.


Home or portable hemodialysis machine NxStage can be easily configured for chronic care or critical/acute care settings, and can be routinely used in treatment of chronic renal failure, acute renal failure, and fluid overload associated with heart failure.


Kidney Dialysis machine is A machine that cleans patient's blood from waste products and excess water when the kidneys are dysfunctional,damaged or missing.we can say also that dialysis machine tries to mimic some of the functions of a human kidney One of the primary jobs of a kidney is to remove urea and certain salts from the blood so they can exit the body in urine.

The dialysis machine is taking the blood through a vein in the forearm or arteriole-venous (AV) fistula.to the dialysis machine through plastic tubing. The dialysis machine itself can be thought of as an artificial kidney. Inside, it consists of more plastic tubing that carries the removed blood to the dialyser, a bundle of hollow fibers that forms a semipermeable membrane for filtering out impurities.

In the dialyser, blood is diffused with a saline solution called dialysate, and the dialysate is in turn diffused with blood. Once the filtration process is complete, the cleansed blood on the kidney dialysis machine returned to the patient. Most sessions take about four hours.

There are many kidney dialysis machines portable dialysis machin or we can call home dialysis machine and fix dialysis machine that the patient mast be coming to the hospital or dialysis center to do dialysis there.

Gambro and fresenius is one of kidney dialysis machines branch....


When your kidneys are healthy, they clean your blood. They also make hormones that keep your bones strong and your blood healthy. When your kidneys fail, you need treatment to replace the work your kidneys used to do. Unless you have a kidney transplant, you will need a treatment called kidney dialysis.

Dialysis is a treatment that does some of the things done by healthy kidneys.

Dialysis (from Greek "dialusis", meaning dissolution, "dia", meaning through, and "lusis", meaning loosening) is a procedure that is a substitute for many of the normal duties of the kidneys,and primarily to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure we can use a dialysis.

Kidney Dialysis or Hemodialysis also called renal dialysis is blood cleansing method capable of restoring the fluid-electrolyte balance and of eliminating water in excess and toxic substances which accumulate in the organism in course of kidney failure rendering them to a liquid with an electrolytic content similar to that of normal plasma which does not contain them; here and below such liquid will be indicated with the term "dialysing solution".

The application of such method envisages that, after being aspirated from the patient's arm, the blood flows along the so-called arterial line,practically To get your blood into the artificial kidney, the doctor needs to make an access (entrance) into your blood vessels. This is done by minor surgery to your arm or leg. The access can be temporary or permanent.

Sometimes, an access is made by joining an artery to a vein under your skin to make a bigger blood vessel called a fistula.

However, if your blood vessels are not adequate for a fistula, the doctor may use a soft plastic tube to join an artery and a vein under your skin. This is called a graft.

Occasionally, Temporary access takes the form of dialysis catheters, also called tunneled catheters made by means of a narrow plastic tube or hollow tubes inserted into large veins that can support acceptable blood flows. Most catheters are used in emergency situations for short periods of time.

However, catheters can be used for prolonged periods of time, often weeks to months, but it is sometimes used for long-term treatment.

Blood is diverted from the access point in the body to a dialysis machine. Here, the blood flows counter-current to a special solution called the dialysate. The chemical imbalances and impurities of the blood are corrected and the blood is then returned to the body. Typically, most patients undergo hemodialysis for three sessions every week. Each session lasts 3 - 4 hours.

When is dialysis needed?

You need dialysis when you develop end stage kidney failure , usually by the time you lose about 85 to 90 percent of your kidney function.

What does dialysis do?

Like healthy kidneys, dialysis keeps your body in balance. Dialysis does the following:

  • removes waste, salt and extra water to prevent them from building up in the body
  • keeps a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium and bicarbonate
  • helps to control blood pressure
  • When possible, patients should prepare for dialysis before dialysis is absolutely necessary.

It is important to stick to the diet and medicines prescribed by the dialysis staff and your kidney specialist (nephrologist).

The health care provider will make the following assessments before beginning the hemodialysis procedure:
  • Blood pressure
  • Breathing rate
  • Chest assessment
  • Examination of vein access
  • Heart rate
  • Temperature
  • Weight
How the Test Will Feel

Because dialysis takes several hours, it may be tedious. With children, it is especially important to have games, something to read, or other distractions.

Why the Test is Performed

The kidneys function as filters for the blood, removing waste products. They also:
  • Regulate body water
  • Maintain electrolyte balance
  • Ensure that the blood pH remains between 7.35 and 7.45
Dialysis replaces some of the functions for kidneys that aren't working properly. It removes contaminants from the blood that could, and eventually would, lead to death if the kidney is not functioning.

Since dialysis is not a constant process, it cannot monitor body functions as do normal kidneys, but it can eliminate waste products and restore electrolyte and pH levels on an as-needed basis.

Dialysis is most often used for patients who have kidney failure, but it can also quickly remove drugs or poisons in acute situations. This technique can be lifesaving in people with acute or chronic kidney failure.

The immediate risks include:
  • A small bubble of air in the blood that travels to a blood vessel in another part of the body (air embolism)
  • Bleeding from the access site
  • Cramps
  • Dialyzer reaction
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Infection
  • Irregular heartbeat or ischemia
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Nausea and vomiting
Long-term risks include:
  • Autonomic neuropathy
  • Blood loss leading to iron deficiency
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Dialysis-associated amyloidosis
  • Dialysis dementia
Take the following precautions if you are using an AVF or AVG:
  • Do not allow anyone to take a blood pressure reading on an arm with the access.
  • Do not use creams or lotions over the access site.
  • Do not wear tight clothing around the access site.
  • Observe the access site after dialysis, watching for swelling, infection, or bleeding.
  • Routinely check the access site for the "thrill," indicating that the AV site is still functioning. (If the thrill disappears, call your health care provider immediately.)
  • When you sleep, avoid placing pressure on an arm with the access (if the graft or fistula clots, you may need a new one).
If you have an external dialysis access, take these additional precautions:
  • Avoid physical activity that might dislodge the access, which could result in excessive bleeding and air entering the circulatory system. (If this happens, call 911 and get immediate medical attention.)
  • Call your health care provider immediately if you have a fever or other sign of infection.
  • If the color in the tubes changes and becomes a dark red, call your health care provider immediately. (The blood may be clotting.)
Will dialysis help cure the kidney disease?

No. Dialysis does some of the work of healthy kidneys, but it does not cure your kidney disease. You will need to have dialysis treatments for your whole life unless you are able to get a kidney transplant.

Do not miss or skip any dialysis sessions.

References

Tolkoff-Rubin N. Treatment of irreversible renal failure. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 133.

Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 131.



The Fresenius 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine series were designed for flexibility. They all Equipped with advanced therapy options; ultrafiltration, fixed proportioning, heat disinfecting, variable dialysate flow, and including automatic blood pressure monitoring as well as computer documentation capabilities.

The Fresenius 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine, Easy to operate touch membrane control panel with improved visual displays and advance therapy options in the E model is retrofittable to the C and the D machines and the panel of the H system is retrofittable to the C, D, and the E model machines.

InThe Fresenius 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine, All of the models can be upgraded using modules for on-line monitoring and control systems.

The Fresenius 2008 series machines are unique "closed loop" volumetric dialysate control systems. ultrafiltration is measured on-line and patients can be dialyzed with coefficient dialyzers without fear of excess fluid removal.


Monitoring is retrofittable to the D machines and allows for flexibility among the 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine series of machines.

Available features in the 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine include: Volumetric Ultrafiltration Fixed Proportioning, Heat Disinfection and Variable Dialysate Flow.

Advanced options in the 2008 Kidney Dialysis Machine include: BPS08 Automatic Blood Pressure Monitoring System and the FDS08 Computer Documentation System.

This machine continues the tradition of durability and reliability that has made Fresenius a recognized leader world-wide.

.



The Prismaflex (TM) Machine is the newest generation of technology for CRRT (Kidney Dialysis) offered by Gambro.

With the Prismaflex (TM) System, Gambro enhance prescription flexibility by offering a platform with increased therapy options and features.

This is the information about the main differences between the current technology and the Prismaflex (TM) :

The Prismaflex (TM) has the combination of vivid colors and clear graphics on a large 12 inch touch screen.

The safety system of Prismaflex (TM) is proactive, offering many helpful features, such as automatic bar code identification of the set and customized default safe values.


The Prismaflex(TM) Kidney Dialysis Machine has Five pumps offer multiple therapeutic combinations that allows the delivery of fluid into the blood pre filter. This circuit is called the Pre Blood Pump (PBP). Fluid delivered into this circuit will be accounted for in the calculation of net fluid balance. And a pre-blood pump allows infusion of a supplemental solution for hemodilution or anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit.

The Prismaflex(TM) tubing is larger. This will lowers the resistance to flow and can reduce the amount of pull required to remove blood from the patient.

The Prismaflex(TM) has much higher maximum flow rate capabilities for blood flows, dialysate and replacement rates. The Prisma(TM) can only achieve blood flow rates of 150-180 ml/min (depending upon model).

An air elimination port similar to those found on intermittent hemodialysis circuits is incorporated into the Prismaflex(TM) circuit.

Scales are still used to measure weight changes, however, the new Prismaflex (TM) is less susceptible to nuisance alarms. Scales are now located at waist level, with an improved ergonomic design for bag changes.

Prismaflex(TM) is a much more flexible system that allows any therapy change. Prisma(TM) is initially set-up in CVVHDF mode. This provides the flexibility of being able to change the therapy to CVVH or SCUF, without changing the filter. Higher hemofiltration rates can be run if the circuit is set-up initially as CVVH, however, dialysate cannot be added without starting a new filter.

The same Prismaflex(TM) filter can be run as predilution, postdilution, or a combination of both, when hemofiltration therapy is used. Currently, Prisma(TM) can only be run as predilution OR postdilution, depending upon the type of filter being selected. Currently, we only stock predilution sets for the Prisma(TM).We will continue using the predilution filters at this time.

The Prismaflex(TM) Kidney Dialysis Machine has Technical differences exist among the filters used, methods for priming, heater and heater tubing and method for bag changes.


The Prismaflex(TM) Kidney Dialysis Machine has also Data storage capabilities.


The Gambro Artis dialysis system is making life in the clinic easier for everyone.

The ArtisTM dialysis system makes advanced therapies more accessible and easier to implement in your daily clinic routine.

Designing Artis dialysis system, Gambro also ascribed to human factor engineering, ergonomics and usability as top priorities in innovation.

Gambro is confident the rewards in staff satisfaction with Artis dialysis system will be significant.Helping dialysis providers elevate operational efficiency is equally important.

To sustain quality of care while reducing workloads we have also integrated more intelligent systems that automate processes while minimizing administrative efforts and the potential for error.

Experience the benefits of Advanced simplicity with Artis.The new system includes a completely updated user interface which fosters flexible and consistent treatment for kidney dialysis that is completed both simply and easily.


The ease of learning and usability are further enhanced by a touch-screen interface, placing the user in control and facilitating the decision-making process. A unique and innovative blood circuit has been designed in this dialysis machine for the extracorporeal blood circulation, significantly reducing the number of user actions and risks of misuse.

All of these innovations contribute to a better user experience. The location and the design of each component have been carefully studied, ensuring intuitive and efficient handling. The Artis TM Sistem Kidney dialysis machine monitor will also improve the daily working environment with a human touch design.

The Artis TM Kidney dialysis machine system has been well received by the clinicians who have already had an opportunity to use the system. ”My overall impression is very positive. The design is clean and the large screen allows me to monitor the treatment even when I am not close to the machine.

It was very easy to learn how to use The Artis TM Sistem Kidney dialysis machine the system and the installation procedure of the new blood module will significantly reduce the time to prepare the machine for treatment.” said one renal nurse after first sessions performed with the.

The Artis TM Sistem Kidney dialysis machine system can be adapted to any treatment strategy and prescription, from conventional, high flux to advanced online hemodialysis therapies.

The ArtisTM Kidney dialysis machine system includes an intelligent regulation system allowing for continuous therapy adjustments to the status of the patient for better comfort and more consistent delivery of the prescription.


A new build renal unit was established at the Countess of Chester Hospital in early 2006, and it is equipped with the highest specification Gambro Kidney Dialysis Machine (In-center Care ) AK 200 S and Ultra S machines.

The AK 200 ULTRATM S machine is the easiest and most versatile machine available. These enable a whole range of therapies to be applied to patients, including higher convection HD, HF and HDF.

The AK 200 ULTRATM S kidney dialysis machine is Specifically designed for on-line HDF/HF treatments, with it is easy to select the method or treatment that suits the patient best.


With ULTRACONTROL, The AK 200 ULTRATM S provides unique high convective volume in a smooth way, and become a simpler, safer tool to use, with easy treatment set up. There is a reduced risk of excessive haemoconcentration and the exchange volumes are greater, therefore this may improve treatment out come when using this preferred therapy option, on-line HDF.


This is true even in the most challenging setup: HDF post-dilution with high hematocrit level patients.

Best convective volumes are achieved in a smooth and consistent way in on-line HDF/HF treatments resulting in:
  • Less micro inflammation episodes, i.e. ensuring a better response to EPO dose
  • Improved cardiovascular stability
  • Increased patient satisfaction
Thanks to the three-barrier filtration concept, the AK 200 ULTRA S ensures optimal fluid quality throughout any treatment.

AK 200 ULTRA S is not cleared for sales in the US.


The new standard in kidney dialysis patient safety and operational efficiencies has been sated in The innovative Phoenix® dialysis system.

The low-volume design of the Gambro Cartridge™ Blood Set also offers optimal biocompatibility, while the combined use of BiCart® Cartridge and Diaclear® Ultrafilter reduces bacteria and endotoxins, resulting in fewer dialysis related problems for your patients.

Phoenix system Designed also with a unique protective blood module, Phoenix system eliminates the risk of cross-contamination between patients caused by transducer protector contamination.

Phoenix kidney dialysis machine system is streamlined therapy delivery for you and your patients. Phoenix system also features operational efficiencies that optimize the workflow of your dialysis unit.


There are Other features of Phoenix system kidney dialysis machine:
  • Diascan Monitoring System offers real-time evaluation of dialysis efficiency.
  • System automations in the Preparation of kidney dialysis treatment– including auto-prime, programmable recirculation, auto-disinfection and rinse, automatic wake-up and auto-off functions – streamline workflow for optimal efficiency.
  • Preparation of kidney dialysis treatment ; Intelligent design set-up eliminates the need for dialyzer rotation and the need for a waste-priming bucket.
  • Reduced downtimes minimize time to dialysis treatment and time between two dialysis treatments to less than 10 minutes, and 32 minutes for full chemical disinfection.


Gambro Launches the kidney dialysis , AK 96TM ;which designed to provide benefits secondary to a less expensive and a smaller, modular system. The product launch was detailed with a press release from Gambro, posted on the company website.

AK 96TM A New Dialysis Machine To Deliver kidney dialysis Treatment With The Highest Level Of Quality And Safety.

The AK 96TM kidney dialysis machine will replace an earlier model the AK 95 S, from the company.

It secures and eases high-quality user interactions with dialysis systems, leads to effective medical treatment as well as improves the user experience for renal care providers.

The new system includes a completely updated user interface which fosters flexible and consistent treatment for kidney dialysis that is completed both simply and easily.


9 January 2009 ; Thelaunch of New AK 96® monitor.


Gambro is proud to announce the UK launch of our new AK
96TM Dialysis machine monitor, which was previewed at the ART conference in October.

For all treatments and all patients, This new single pump platform features heavily on operational efficiency and reliability. New features integrated with the
96TM kidney dialysis machine include the Diascan system. The monitor is already living up to its promise to offer more in a simple way with successful launches throughout the APAC With Gambro Diascan™ quality control feature.

Another major benefit is the improved access for renal technicians to work on the dialysis machine monitor.

the AK
96TM Kidney Dialysis machine has a very intuitive user interface, meaning less time is required for training and ongoing use is easier, that can be verified by
Extensive trials were carried out during 2008 in the UK, Hong Kong, Malaysia, India, Saudi Arabia and Canada.

24 October 2008 ; New monitor of AK 96 proves itself in trials.

It won't be long before hospitals are able to benefit from what Gambro new AK
96TM kidney dialysis machine monitor has to offer. In vivo Alpha and Beta UK field trials at the Churchill Hospital have produced positive results, with its ease-of-use proving especially encouraging.

"I am excited about this product as it is a compact system which still integrates with Gambro's portable water treatment systems to ensure the continuity of the hygienic chain," says Gareth Jones, Country Manager, UK & Ireland. "Safety has been uppermost in our minds when developing the monitor and it follows a comprehensive safety philosophy comprising conductivity measurement, UF cells, complete function checks, and an intuitive user interface and processes.

"It also delivers additional treatment features such as Diascan© which provides a quality assurance tool giving on-line clearance measurement and Kt/V surveillance for all patients, at every session of kidney dialysis.

"We had great faith that the AK 96 kidney dialysis machine monitor would deliver solid standard dialysis treatment and a high degree of reliability, as well as being easy to operate for both in-centre and home patient use. This faith has been put to the test through the trials."

Commenting upon the trials, Churchill's Chief Technician Andy Mosson said: "I was impressed with the clean lines of the AK 96 Kidney dialysis machine and our nursing team were able to adapt to its use reasonably easily. The technical team liked the improved access and layout and in terms of technical performance the AK 96 machine performed well."

Gambro leveraged features from the older model, while adding on others to make the product in the top tier of dialysis machines. Features added to the newest iteration foster flexibility in system use.

Incorporated is a standby mode which allows flexibility in the preparation of fluids, which saves both concentrate and water. A variety of configuration choices are included with the AK 96 kidney dialysis machine to support each provider’s approach. Further, the options ensure quality delivery of treatment while achieving significant efficiencies.

Gambro goal in developing the product was to create a dialysis delivery system that is safe and effective, as well as simple. Gambro develops a line of products for kidney dialysis care, both at treatment facilities and by patients themselves.

Michael Lewis, The President EMEA also says "It is our ambition to always act with renal or kidney patients and our customers at the top of our minds. Dialysis should be simple, safe and effective and therefore I feel extremely happy to present AK 96 kidney dialysis machine, which has been developed with these requirements in mind,"

The AK 96 kidney dialysis machine is currently not for sale in the USA. The AK 96 will be available from February 2008 in the following markets: UK, Ireland, Middle East, Africa, Canada, India, Vietnam, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand. Subsequent markets will be added throughout 2008 and 2009.

For more information about AK 96 Kidney Dialysis Machine and other Gambro solutions for delivering in-center hemodialysis / kidney dialysis please contact your local Gambro office. Contact details can be found at the Gambro web site: http://www.gambro.com.


Gambro is a company that specialising in dialysis machines and renal medicine products.

Gambro is a global medical technology company and a leader in developing, manufacturing and supplying products, therapies and services for In-center Care and Self Care Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, Renal Intensive Care, dialysis machines equipment and Hepatic Care.

when the industrialist Holger Crafoord met Professor Nils Alwall, Gambro as a Swedish company was founded in Lund in 1964 , Professor Nils Alwall, who had invented an artificial kidney,in 1961 at a social event and listened to his story. It was so impressive, he felt compelled to develop and market this life-saving innovation (dialysis).

For decades, Gambro has led the market in kidney care development and has been first to market with many groundbreaking innovations. The company started mass production of
dialysis machines and artificial kidneys in 1967 and in 1973 they opened a new plant in Germany.

Gambro was founded in 1964 and has production facilities dialysis centers in 11 countries, more than 8 000 dialysis machines employees, sales who nows about dialysis and dialysis machines in more than 100, sales subsidiaries in more than 40 countries.

Gambro is the only clinic-independent company and by designing and delivering complete solutions to dialysis clinics and intensive care units, Gambro offers not just improved dialysis treatment quality, but also improved efficiency of dialysis equipments.

Gambro is a worldwide business staffed by dialysis People work in different environments but have a common human focus and commitment to saving lives by dialysis from more than 40 countries. There’s something special about working for Gambro.

GAMBRO PURPOSE

By focusing on innovation and building true partnerships with customers we save lives and improve kidney care.that is gambro purpose, to be the leading innovator and the preferred partner for dialysis providers worldwide.

Gambro business objectives are to be the leader in growth, customer satisfaction and value creation.

GAMBRO VALUES AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES:

  • Customer focus: Gambro always strive to exceed customer expectations and keep dialysis patient safety and quality as a key priority.
  • Accountability- is not just a word. As a company, and as individuals, Gambro hold hemselves accountable to his customers, team members and partners by delivering on our commitments.
  • Team work- people are the biggest asset of the company and teamwork is key to Gambro success.
  • Integrity- conduct business in an ethical manner with courage to do the right thing.
  • Results- are what count and Gambro continuously seeking ways to improve his business.

QUALITY AND SAFETY OF GAMBRO

The quality and safety processes of Gambro are constantly reviewed and improved in order to exceed meet or the highest standards in gambro industry.

The fully committment of Gambro team to designing, manufacturing and supplying safe and high quality products and services that meet or exceed our customer’s expectations.

Gambro consistently focus on customer needs, learning and growth within the organization and the company’s internal processes In order to fulfill international and national requirements, guidelines and policies. This helps ensure that all Gambro activities, both internally and externally, advance the best long-term interest for customers as well as patients.


THE MARKET OF GAMBRO

The global industry providing dialysis is becoming more consolidated and Innovation in the field of dialysis is essential becouse of the lives of a growing number of patients every year saved by Dialysis.

therapy treating organ failure outside the body, or Kidney (renal) dialysis was the world’s first extracorporeal therapy. Kidney dialysis the only alternative today. Renal dialysis remains vital to a growing number of patients around the world. kidney transplantation, is precluded for most patients due to a shortage of donor organs.

For new applications,to remove other fluids and toxins from chronically and acutely ill patients, Dialysis technology is also being developed such as liver dialysis and the emerging field of extracorporeal therapies being developed.

In markets Dialysis patient growth is increasing by 8-10 percent a year In countries with larger populations and fast-developing economies like China and India.In U.S., Europe and Japan, with larger elderly populations and rising rates of wealth, and with that increased incidence of lifestyle-related conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, The number of kidney dialysis patients is growing steadily. the number of patients is increasing by 3-4 percent a year.


THE GAMBRO STORY

It all started with the industrialist Holger Crafoord met the inventor at a social event and listened to his story .

The first artificial kidney invented by Professor Nils Alwall. Just three years later, in 1964. It was so impressive, he felt compelled to develop and market this life-saving innovation.

Development work began in Lund, Sweden. The company adopted the name Gambro, which comes from the Swedish abbreviation for “Gamla Brogatans Sjukvårdsaffär Aktiebolag". Roughly translated, that means “Old Bridge Street Medical Supplies Company". Mass-production of single-use artificial kidneys and dialysis machines began in 1967. The company’s first plant outside Sweden was built in Hechingen, Germany in the 1970s.

During the last three decades, Hospal, COBE, REN and Vivra have all been added to the Gambro Group. REN and Vivra are now divested as Gambro has sold all US clinics to US dialysis company DaVita.that is mean the acquisitions have helped broaden Gambro’s range of products and services.

Indap AB, indirectly jointly-owned by EQT and Investor AB announced on April 3, 2006 a public cash offer to the shareholders of Gambro to acquire all outstanding shares in Gambro. The new ownership structure of Gambro became effective in June 2006.

Milestones in the Gambro Story:


  • 1964 Gambro was founded in Lund by Holger Crafoord, an industrialist who decided to develop and market the artificial kidney.
  • 1967 The dialyzer “Ad-modum-Alwall” is launched.
  • 1973 The first plant outside Sweden is opened in Hechingen, Germany.
  • 1977 The AK-10, the first computerized dialysis machine, is introduced at a renal care congress in Helsinki Finland.
  • 1983 Gambro shares are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange.
  • 1987 Hospal (a European company founded in 1977 by the merger of Sandoz and Rhône-Poulenc) is acquired and the BiCart-cartridge is launched.
  • 1988 Launch of COBE Spectra Apheresis System.
  • 1990 COBE (American company founded in 1964 – active in renal care, blood component technology and cardiovascular surgery) is acquired.
  • 1991 First Gambro dialysis clinic is opened in Lund, Sweden.
  • 1996 Gambro becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of Incentive, an international technology based industrial group.
  • 1997 Launch of Trima Automated Blood Collection System.
  • 1998 Incentive changes its name to Gambro, heralding the start of a new era.
  • 2000 COBE BCT changes its name to Gambro BCT.
  • 2001 The new state-of-the-art plant for production of dialyzers opened in Germany.
  • 2003 Gambro BCT reached USD 200 million in sales.
  • 2004 Gambro celebrates its 40th anniversary.
  • Gambro sells US clinics and establishes strategic alliance with DaVita and Baxter.
  • In December 2005, Gambro BCT reached its sales target of USD 300 million.
  • 2006 Indap AB, new owners of Gambro
  • 2007 With the divesture of Gambro Health Care, Gambro became the only global clinic-independent company with a full range of products, covering all renal therapies within Peritoneal Dialysis, Self Care hemodialysis, In-Center hemodialysis, Renal Intensive Care and Hepatic Care
http://www.gambro.com


NxStage Medical, Inc. is one of medical supplier company which leading manufacturer of innovative dialysis products. On the 2005, they are released a Hemodialysis Machine "NxStage System One", a portable unit that allows patients to conduct their own dialysis at home or on the road.

The NxStage System One is a portable kidney dialysis machine that became the first truly portable home hemodialysis machine. NxStage using FDA clearance's system to deliver multiple therapy options, and delivers these therapies in short intermittent schedules, long continuous schedules, or anything in between patient condition.


Home or portable hemodialysis machine NxStage can be easily configured for chronic care or critical/acute care settings, and can be routinely used in treatment of chronic renal failure, acute renal failure, and fluid overload associated with heart failure.


Kidney Dialysis machine is A machine that cleans patient's blood from waste products and excess water when the kidneys are dysfunctional,damaged or missing.we can say also that dialysis machine tries to mimic some of the functions of a human kidney One of the primary jobs of a kidney is to remove urea and certain salts from the blood so they can exit the body in urine.

The dialysis machine is taking the blood through a vein in the forearm or arteriole-venous (AV) fistula.to the dialysis machine through plastic tubing. The dialysis machine itself can be thought of as an artificial kidney. Inside, it consists of more plastic tubing that carries the removed blood to the dialyser, a bundle of hollow fibers that forms a semipermeable membrane for filtering out impurities.

In the dialyser, blood is diffused with a saline solution called dialysate, and the dialysate is in turn diffused with blood. Once the filtration process is complete, the cleansed blood on the kidney dialysis machine returned to the patient. Most sessions take about four hours.

There are many kidney dialysis machines portable dialysis machin or we can call home dialysis machine and fix dialysis machine that the patient mast be coming to the hospital or dialysis center to do dialysis there.

Gambro and fresenius is one of kidney dialysis machines branch....


When your kidneys are healthy, they clean your blood. They also make hormones that keep your bones strong and your blood healthy. When your kidneys fail, you need treatment to replace the work your kidneys used to do. Unless you have a kidney transplant, you will need a treatment called kidney dialysis.

Dialysis is a treatment that does some of the things done by healthy kidneys.

Dialysis (from Greek "dialusis", meaning dissolution, "dia", meaning through, and "lusis", meaning loosening) is a procedure that is a substitute for many of the normal duties of the kidneys,and primarily to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure we can use a dialysis.

Kidney Dialysis or Hemodialysis also called renal dialysis is blood cleansing method capable of restoring the fluid-electrolyte balance and of eliminating water in excess and toxic substances which accumulate in the organism in course of kidney failure rendering them to a liquid with an electrolytic content similar to that of normal plasma which does not contain them; here and below such liquid will be indicated with the term "dialysing solution".

The application of such method envisages that, after being aspirated from the patient's arm, the blood flows along the so-called arterial line,practically To get your blood into the artificial kidney, the doctor needs to make an access (entrance) into your blood vessels. This is done by minor surgery to your arm or leg. The access can be temporary or permanent.

Sometimes, an access is made by joining an artery to a vein under your skin to make a bigger blood vessel called a fistula.

However, if your blood vessels are not adequate for a fistula, the doctor may use a soft plastic tube to join an artery and a vein under your skin. This is called a graft.

Occasionally, Temporary access takes the form of dialysis catheters, also called tunneled catheters made by means of a narrow plastic tube or hollow tubes inserted into large veins that can support acceptable blood flows. Most catheters are used in emergency situations for short periods of time.

However, catheters can be used for prolonged periods of time, often weeks to months, but it is sometimes used for long-term treatment.

Blood is diverted from the access point in the body to a dialysis machine. Here, the blood flows counter-current to a special solution called the dialysate. The chemical imbalances and impurities of the blood are corrected and the blood is then returned to the body. Typically, most patients undergo hemodialysis for three sessions every week. Each session lasts 3 - 4 hours.

When is dialysis needed?

You need dialysis when you develop end stage kidney failure , usually by the time you lose about 85 to 90 percent of your kidney function.

What does dialysis do?

Like healthy kidneys, dialysis keeps your body in balance. Dialysis does the following:

  • removes waste, salt and extra water to prevent them from building up in the body
  • keeps a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium and bicarbonate
  • helps to control blood pressure
  • When possible, patients should prepare for dialysis before dialysis is absolutely necessary.

It is important to stick to the diet and medicines prescribed by the dialysis staff and your kidney specialist (nephrologist).

The health care provider will make the following assessments before beginning the hemodialysis procedure:
  • Blood pressure
  • Breathing rate
  • Chest assessment
  • Examination of vein access
  • Heart rate
  • Temperature
  • Weight
How the Test Will Feel

Because dialysis takes several hours, it may be tedious. With children, it is especially important to have games, something to read, or other distractions.

Why the Test is Performed

The kidneys function as filters for the blood, removing waste products. They also:
  • Regulate body water
  • Maintain electrolyte balance
  • Ensure that the blood pH remains between 7.35 and 7.45
Dialysis replaces some of the functions for kidneys that aren't working properly. It removes contaminants from the blood that could, and eventually would, lead to death if the kidney is not functioning.

Since dialysis is not a constant process, it cannot monitor body functions as do normal kidneys, but it can eliminate waste products and restore electrolyte and pH levels on an as-needed basis.

Dialysis is most often used for patients who have kidney failure, but it can also quickly remove drugs or poisons in acute situations. This technique can be lifesaving in people with acute or chronic kidney failure.

The immediate risks include:
  • A small bubble of air in the blood that travels to a blood vessel in another part of the body (air embolism)
  • Bleeding from the access site
  • Cramps
  • Dialyzer reaction
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Infection
  • Irregular heartbeat or ischemia
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Nausea and vomiting
Long-term risks include:
  • Autonomic neuropathy
  • Blood loss leading to iron deficiency
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Dialysis-associated amyloidosis
  • Dialysis dementia
Take the following precautions if you are using an AVF or AVG:
  • Do not allow anyone to take a blood pressure reading on an arm with the access.
  • Do not use creams or lotions over the access site.
  • Do not wear tight clothing around the access site.
  • Observe the access site after dialysis, watching for swelling, infection, or bleeding.
  • Routinely check the access site for the "thrill," indicating that the AV site is still functioning. (If the thrill disappears, call your health care provider immediately.)
  • When you sleep, avoid placing pressure on an arm with the access (if the graft or fistula clots, you may need a new one).
If you have an external dialysis access, take these additional precautions:
  • Avoid physical activity that might dislodge the access, which could result in excessive bleeding and air entering the circulatory system. (If this happens, call 911 and get immediate medical attention.)
  • Call your health care provider immediately if you have a fever or other sign of infection.
  • If the color in the tubes changes and becomes a dark red, call your health care provider immediately. (The blood may be clotting.)
Will dialysis help cure the kidney disease?

No. Dialysis does some of the work of healthy kidneys, but it does not cure your kidney disease. You will need to have dialysis treatments for your whole life unless you are able to get a kidney transplant.

Do not miss or skip any dialysis sessions.

References

Tolkoff-Rubin N. Treatment of irreversible renal failure. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 133.

Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 131.



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